[前へ戻る]
   

 授業科目
 Course Title
比較文化A
Comparative Culture A
 担当者
 Instructor
教授   ウィリアム・マコウミ  前学期 木曜日2時限
 単 位
 Credit
2

関連するディプロマポリシー Related Diploma Policy
国際的感性とコミュニケーション能力/International sensibilities and communication capabilities
 
到達目標 Target to be Reached
 This class aims to provide students with the means to become better aware of the intimate and interactive relationship of nature and culture and the crucial role that culture has played in the evolution of humans and their adaptation to various physical environments. They will also learn to better appreciate the importance and continuing relevance of past events to present circumstances and the enduring legacy of ancient civilizations.
 Through studying human cultural distinctiveness in a comparative perspective, it is hoped that students will achieve a clearer comprehension of their own native language and culture as well as those of others, and to attain a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the kinds of cultural barriers which often stand in the way of closer communication between people from different cultures, as well as what aspects of culture may potentially serve as intercultural bridges between different peoples.
 
授業内容 Course Content
 In this semester we will adopt a chronological approach and take a long overview of human culture from its very beginnings until the present day. We will examine the crucial role that culture has played in human evolution and the vitally important function that it continues to perform in human life in the present. We will describe some key ancient civilizations, and the cultures and lifestyles of different historical periods and compare and contrast them with our modern global civilization and its dominant values and lifestyle. We will explore the rich variety of human language and culture from its origins until the present day in order to attain a clearer understanding of both the fundamental unity and diversity of cultural ways of knowing and seeing the world and oneself.
 
授業計画 Course Planning
 A tentative schedule of lectures and topics is given below. The actual topics covered may vary from week to week. 進捗状況により内容は前後する。
1 Guidance and Course Introduction; Preview and Overview of Course Content and Main Topics
Explanation of course goals, classroom management and methods of evaluation; introduction to and outline of course content and lecture schedule; questions and answers (Q & A).
Human Physical and Cultural Evolution and Revolution through the Dynamic Interaction of Nature, Culture and Environment
Origins of human beings in the natural world; human evolution and the development of culture and language through the interaction of nature and culture in a changing climate; archaelogical and genetic evidence for the occurrence of a human cognitive revolution and successive human migrations out of Africa into Asia and Europe and interbreeding with other representatives of the genus Homo leading to the formation of modern humans, and other selected topics.

2 Human Worldwide Settlement and Cultural Development and Differentiation Before Recorded History
Human migration to and settlement of all the habitable world; formation of different physical races and separation into various bands and tribes with distinctive cultures and languages; dominance of a nomadic lifestyle of hunting and foraging for food; development of ability to create meaning through representation revealed in artistic expression, and burial artifacts, and other selected topics.

3 The Dawn of Recorded Human History and the Enduring Cultural Legacy of the Earliest Civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China
The beginning of cultivation of plants and the domestication of animals; settlement in villages, towns and cities; birth and growth of the earliest city-states and civilizations in Sumer, Egypt, India and China; social specialization and stratification; invention of writing systems and the beginning of recorded history and literary culture; gods and goddesses; legends and myths; customs and beliefs, ideas and inventions of the earliest civilizations in Asia and their lasting legacy.

4 The Formation of the Earliest and Greatest Empires-Sumerian, Egyptian, Assyrian, Persian, Athenian, Alexandrian, Roman, Parthian and Sasanian.
The first written records of kings, the practice of warfare and the formation of empires; invasion and conquest of civilizations by nomadic peoples and formation of new empires; the contrasting cultures of Sumer, Egypt, Athens and Sparta, and the special legacy of the empire of Alexander and the Hellenic Cultural World.

5 The Axis Age: Confucius and other Chinese thinkers and the founding of various schools of thought; the Hebrew prophets; the earliest Greek philosophers; Socrates, Plato and Aristotle; introduction to some of the key concepts and core values of ancient Chinese, Hebrew, Indian and Greek philosophical and religious traditions, and other selected topics.

6 The Enduring Legacy of the Civilizations of Greece, Rome and Byzantium; Medieval Christian Europe and the Civilizations of Islam, India and China, 500BC-1400AD
The rise of Rome and the formation of the Roman empire; the spread of Roman culture and the Latin language throughout the empire; the decline of the pagan Roman gods and the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman empire; the founding of Constantinople; the important historical role of the Byzantine Empire; the nomadic invasions of Europe from Asia; the Germanic invasions of Celtic Britain; the Viking and Norman migrations and invasions; the development of feudalism and division of society into lords and ladies, knights and monks, artisans and peasants; the Crusades; the Mongol empire; the Black Death, and other selected topics.

7 The Continuing Legacy of the Renaissance and Reformation in Europe and of the Rise of the Scientific Worldview and the European Voyages of Exploration, Discovery and Conquest 1400-1600
The Italian city-states and the 'rebirth' of Europe; the rediscovery of classical learning and literature; the Protestant Reformation; European voyages of exploration and discovery; the 'new world' of America and new oceanic routes to India and the 'East Indies'; the spice trade and the 'Columbian Exchange' of plants between Eurasia and the Americas; the European conquest and colonization of the Americas; the Atlantic slave trade, and other topics.

8 The Legacy of the Scientific, Technological and Industrial Revolutions and Political Revolutions and Wars in Europe and America 1600-1842
The French, English and Scottish Enlightenments; the scientific, technological and industrial revolutions; the causes and ideals of the French and American revolutions; the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte and a French Empire; the struggle for political, economic, military and cultural supremacy in Europe; the role of Russia in the eventual defeat of Napoleon and as a cultural and political bridge to Asia; the Battle of Waterloo and the final exile of Napoleon; the Congress of Vienna and the making of modern Europe and other selected topics.

9 Review of Main Points and Topics; Questions and Answers; Midterm Examination

10 The Birth of the Modern World in Europe, America and Asia, and the First World War 1842-1919
The growth of industrialism, commercialism and capitalism; the rise of the middle and working classes; the opening of the Pacific rim to international commerce and cultural intercourse and the development of steamship routes between California, Japan and China; the unification of Germany, Italy and Japan; the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War; the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917; the economic theories of Marx and Engels, Darwin's theory of evolution and Einstein's theories of relativity, and other selected topics.

11 The Culture of the Roaring Twenties and the Turbulent Thirties; the Second World War and the Dawn of the Nuclear Age 1920-1945
The economic, political, material, spiritual and intellectual culture of the 1920s and 1930s in the US, Europe and Japan; the Wall Street stock market crash of 1929 and the worldwide economic depression of the 1930s; the rise of the ideologies of Fascism and Nazism, and their conflict with Communism; the outbreak of war in East Asia and Europe; the struggle for world dominance and the search for ever more powerful weapons in quest of victory; the manufacture and use of the first atomic bombs and other selected topics.

12 The Continuing Legacy of the Cold War and the Nuclear Arms Race and of the Fearful Peace and Detente, followed by the Invention of the Personal Computer and the End of the Cold War 1945-1991
The Yalta Conference; the division of Europe into East and West by an "Iron Curtain" and the beginning of the Cold War; the Soviet atomic bomb and the beginning of the nuclear arms race; the Korean war; the hydrogen bomb and the escalation of the nuclear arms race; the launching of the Sputnik and the space race;the war in Vietnam; the policy of detente between the USA and USSR; the American opening to China; the radical shift in Chinese policy under the leadership of Deng; glasnost and perestroika in the USSR under the leadership of Gorbachev; the political and cultural revolutions in eastern Europe and the collapse of the Soviet Union, and other selected topics.

13 The Birth of the World Wide Web (Internet); E-mail and Social Networking; Artificial Intelligence and Information Technology 1992-present
The invention of the worldwide web; dawn of the digital and internet era; email vs 'snail mail'; emergence and growth of search engines and social networking websites; the post-9/11 world; the global financial crisis and economic recession; the problem of increasing social and economic inequality; the cultural and ecological crises confronting humanity at present. and other current topics.

14 Review of Main Points and Topics; Questions and Answers; Final Examination
 
授業運営 Course Management
 Lecture, and small group discussions; computer-based presentation and accompanying worksheets and handouts. VHS, DVD, and other visual media and printed materials may also be used to supplement the lecture topics. Reading materials provided by the instructor will be assigned for homework on a regular basis.
 
評価方法 Evaluation Method
 Assessment will be based on the midterm examination (80%), and the final examination and/or final essay (20%).
 
オフィスアワー Office Hour (s)
 After class or by appointment.
 
使用書 Textbook (s)
 適宜プリントを配布する。
参考書 Book (s) for Reference
Christopher Lloyd,What on Earth Happened,Bloomsbury,2012
Christopher Lloyd『137億年の物語』(What on Earth Happened?)2012
Yuval Noah Harari,Sapiens,Vintage,(A Brief History of Humankind),2011

 
 
 
[前へ戻る]