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 授業科目
 Course Title
比較文化論
Comparative Culture 
 担当者
 Instructor
教授   ウィリアム・マコウミ  後学期 木曜日4時限
 単 位
 Credit
2

到達目標 Target to be Reached
 Through studying various aspects of human culture in the present and comparing and contrasting the ways in which traditional and modern societies have dealt with common human problems the students should be able to gain a greater appreciation of the diversity of human cultures in the world today and the many different ways that humans create meaning and give purpose to their lives and how they choose to order their societies. In this way they should be able to deepen and enrich their understanding of the essential role that culture plays in human life.
 
授業内容 Course Content
 There are in fact many behavioral traits that all human beings share, yet there are also many cultural values and traditions that set them apart from one another. In this semester we will together explore these fundamental commonalities and basic differences in human behavior and culture from such diverse perspectives as language and communication style, food and drink, clothing and fashion, sports and entertainment, advertising and mass media, politics and economics. We will also compare and contrast different national and transnational, regional and local cultures, modern developed cultures and traditional indigenous cultures from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
 
授業計画 Course Planning
 A tentative schedule of lectures is given below. The actual schedule may vary week by week. 進捗状況により内容は前後する。
1 Introduction to the Course; Overview of the Main Topics; Brief Survey of the Background to Contemporary Culture since 1992
Explanation of course goals, classroom management and methods of evaluation; brief introduction to course content and overview of main topics and sub-topics; questions and answers (Q & A).
The invention of the worldwide web; dawn of the digital and internet era; email vs 'snail mail'; emergence and growth of search engines and social networking websites; the post-9/11 world; the global financial crisis and economic recession; the problem of increasing social and economic inequality; the cultural and ecological crises confronting humanity at present and other topics.
2 Language, Culture and Communication in Comparative Perspective
Exploration of the close connection between language, culture and communication style in a number of modern and traditional societies and the respective roles that they play in those societies;examination of the role of English and other languages as international means of communication; analysis of the most important differences in language, culture and communication style that may lead to confusion and misunderstanding between people from different cultures, and other selected topics.
3 Comparative Language and Culture: Structure and Ranges of Meaning
Comparative analysis of the semantic structure of different European and other languages, including English, German, Russian and Japanese as revealed in the different ranges of meaning and usage of particular words and expressions; the problem of translation between languages; the challenge of communicating one's intended meaning across personal, linguistic and cultural boundaries.
4 Different Ways of Knowing and Living Among Modern and Traditional Societies
Exploration of different ways of knowing and sensing the world and oneself through study of etymology and usage of the words for knowing, seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, feeling and understanding, etc. in different languages and cultural traditions; examination of how these different words influence the ways of thinking and living in diverse societies in both the past and present; explanation of the distinction between information, knowledge and wisdom and other selected topics.
5 Linguistic and Cultural Diversity and Uniformity in the World; Native and Non-native Varieties of English in the World
Investigation of cultural universals and particularities and the varieties of cultural identity and distinctiveness; description and comparison of the different native and non-native varieties of English in the world; introduction of different ways of thinking and kinds of logic and other selected topics.
6. Food and Drink Culture Around the World
Introductory survey of some of the major culinary cultures in the world today; examination of the origins of contemporary food and drink culture in the agricultural and animal husbandry practiced by the earliest civilizations and its evolution into large-scale factory farms and ranches and the modern food processing industry; survey of the 'organic,' 'natural' and 'slow food' movements that are opposed to the globalized and commercialized 'fast food' and supermarket industry, and other selected topics.
7 Clothing and Fashion; Body Decoration and Cosmetics; Aesthetic and Artistic Culture
Exploration of the aesthetic and artistic, literary and poetic, fashionable and cosmetic, decorative and domestic dimensions of life and culture and the contrasting ideals of beauty and ideas of truth in various modern and traditional societies in both the past and present; comparison of words for aesthetic concepts in English and Japanese.
9 Review of the main themes and major points; Midterm Examination
10 Education and Training; Company and Work Culture
Exploration of the meaning and purpose of higher education and specialized training and its development in different historical eras and countries; comparison of the different kinds of work culture found in various countries; explanation of the difference between profession, occupation and vocation and consideration of their relative merits, and other selected topics.
11 Love and Romance; Marriage and Partnership
Consideration of the varied forms that love and romance, marriage and partnership have taken in diverse societies in the past and present, and explication of how these different emphases and practices have changed and may continue to change in the future as influenced by cultural and social changes, political and economic policies and technological innovations.
12 Leisure and Recreation; Entertainment and Sports; Advertising and Marketing
Survey of leisure time pursuits and different recreational activities; comparative analysis of contemporary entertainment and sports culture; the development and spread of commercial advertising and marketing and its effect on the broader culture and society, and other topics.
13 Health and Wealth;Success and Happiness
Presentation of the results of international surveys about the differences in the degree of perceived happiness in diverse regions of the world and consideration of the ways in which differences in culture and environment, health and wealth influence the subjective state of happiness; comparison of the merits of GNP vs. GNH as societal goals and other selected topics.
14 Religion and Spirituality; Knowledge and Wisdom; Vision and Imagination
Examination from a comparative cultural perspective of ancient human beliefs and customs such as the reality and influence of the spirit world, the necessity of sacrifice and pilgrimage, the magic of words, the sacredness of the world and the interconnectedness of all things; consideration of how human beings may achieve a state of balance within and among themselves and with the natural world in order to develop an essential 'ecology of mind.'
15 Review and Overview of Main Topics; Final Examination
 
授業運営 Course Management
 Lecture, small group and class discussion; computer-based presentation and accompanying worksheets. VHS, DVD, and other visual media and printed materials may also be used to supplement the lecture topics. Weekly reading assignments.
 
評価方法 Evaluation Method
 Assessment will be based on written examinations (80%), and performance on classroom and homework assignments (20%).
 
オフィスアワー Office Hour (s)
 After class or by appointment.
 

参考書 Book (s) for Reference
John Berger,Ways of Seeing,Eihosha
Jared Diamond,The World Until Yesterday,Viking,(What we can learn from traditional societies),2012
Christopher Lloyd,What on Earth Happened?,Bloomsbury,2012

 
 
 
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